From December 2 to 13, 2019, the 25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP25) was held in Madrid, Spain. During this conference, China showed the world a series of action plans and practical results in global climate governance. China's aggressive climate diplomacy and pragmatic global climate governance plan have attracted widespread attention from the international community.
China's increasingly aggressive climate diplomacy
In the global climate governance process, China has always adopted a strategy of rational response, equal emphasis on principle and flexibility. China's participation in global climate governance can be divided into three phases.
From 1992 to 2009, it was a stage of cautious participation in China's climate diplomacy. At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992, China took the lead in ratifying the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as the "Convention"). Although China has signed and ratified the Convention, as it is relatively unfamiliar with international rules, systems and modes of operation, China has adopted a cautious attitude while trying to integrate into the global climate governance mechanism. Unlike diplomatic occasions, in this stage, China has begun active actions, formulated and vigorously promoted a series of policies and measures conducive to climate change mitigation, and encouraged energy conservation and renewable energy development. While maintaining a prudent attitude in climate diplomacy, China has steadily and steadily advanced actions to address climate change at home, which has become a prominent feature of China's participation in global climate governance at this stage.
From 2010 to 2013, China's climate diplomacy has entered a stage of active contribution. At this stage, China has implemented more flexible and proactive measures in international climate negotiations and domestic related fields, showing a more open and cooperative attitude. After the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, China has clearly realized that it is necessary to make early preparations in order to cope with the general trend of global climate governance. What's more, tackling climate change and harnessing the domestic ecological environment have two effects. To this end, China has taken a series of actions to participate in global climate governance with a more proactive attitude. Internationally, China has actively participated in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the compliance mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. As of the end of 2013, China's CDM project issuance has accounted for more than 60% of the global total. In China, in 2011, China issued a white paper entitled "China's Policies and Actions to Combat Climate Change (2011)"; and at the end of the same year, it published the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions" and proposed "exploring and establishing Emissions Trading Market "requirements. At this stage, with a progressive attitude beyond the expectations of the outside world, China gradually demonstrated the image of a responsible big country, which was well received by the international community, laying a foundation for later playing a more important role in global climate governance.
Since 2014, China's climate diplomacy has taken the lead. After more than 20 years of international climate negotiations, China has a deeper understanding of the formulation of global climate governance rules, mechanism operating characteristics and subsequent international and domestic impacts, and has accumulated richer experience. At the same time, China ’s overall national strength and 20 years ago Compared with this, the desire and ability to deeply participate in global climate governance has increased significantly. Moreover, the expectations of the international community for China have also reached unprecedented heights. China has shown a promising attitude both at home and abroad. Since 2014, China has been committed to playing a leading role in the global climate governance process. It has promoted the Paris Agreement, promoted South-South climate cooperation, launched a unified national carbon market, promoted energy conservation and emission reduction, and vigorously developed renewable energy. And measures to strengthen ecological environment protection, began to make frequent efforts in global climate governance. China's open, cooperative and highly responsible attitude has earned it a high international reputation. At this stage, China has gradually evolved from an original cautious participant in global climate governance to a key driving force for the formation of international climate norms, and has become an important contributor and leader of global climate governance.
China's Global Climate Governance Program under the Framework of a Community of Human Destiny
Guided by the concept of a community of shared future for mankind, China has contributed a consensus on global climate governance. China emphasizes that climate change is a common problem for all mankind and requires the joint efforts of all countries in the world to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on promoting the construction of a community of shared future for mankind states that "we must adhere to environmental friendliness, cooperate in tackling climate change, and protect the earth ’s homeland on which humankind depends." The idea of a community of shared future for mankind puts forward the concept of global governance for consultation, co-construction and sharing, and calls on people from all over the world to work together to promote the building of a community of shared future for mankind and jointly create a better future for mankind. The proposal of the concept of a community of shared future for mankind has curbed the tide of anti-globalization and national centralism, and has given the world the opportunity to start a new voyage of global climate governance under this new concept.
China has pragmatically implemented the concept of a community of shared future for mankind, worked hard to promote the formation of a global climate governance framework, combined with the construction of ecological civilization at home, and demonstrated a strong response to climate through low-carbon transformation and renewable energy development. Changes in determination and action have contributed to a comprehensive China plan for effective global climate governance.
Reach an international climate agreement under the United Nations framework to build a systemic framework for global climate governance. In order to promote the achievement of the "Paris Agreement", a major achievement in the global response to climate change, China played a pivotal and irreplaceable role before the Paris Climate Conference and in the process of discussing the formulation of the "Paris Agreement". Out of a deep understanding and firm conviction of the community of human destiny, China signed a two-level joint statement with the United States more than a year before the Paris Climate Conference. As the Paris Climate Conference is about to open, China and France have signed the Joint Statement on Climate Change between the Chinese and French Heads of State. In addition, China has signed joint statements on climate change with the European Union, India and Brazil. It can be said that China's active mediation with all parties before the Paris Climate Conference was held provided an indispensable guarantee for the conclusion of the Paris Agreement and played a leading role for the great powers.
Under the framework of South-South cooperation, China has taken the initiative to take responsibility and provided assistance to developing countries, which has played a positive role in building a global climate governance system. In September 2015, China announced the establishment of a 20 billion RMB China Climate Change South-South Cooperation Fund. At the opening ceremony of the Paris Climate Conference, President Xi Jinping also proposed the "One Hundred Thousands" plan, that is, starting 10 low-carbon demonstration zones, 100 climate mitigation and adaptation projects in developing countries, and 1,000 training places on climate change Cooperation project. China is committed to providing tangible assistance and support to other developing countries in tackling climate change, and has strengthened the determination and motivation of developing countries in tackling climate change.
As one of the leaders of "Natural Based Solutions" (NBS), China is at the forefront of the world to improve and innovate the global climate governance system. During the just-concluded UN Climate Action Summit in New York, China and the Nature Conservation Association successfully hosted a seminar on the practice and outlook of "nature-based solutions" in China. The meeting discussed the cases of China's NBS trials and practices, with a view to better promote the promotion of NBS by sharing Chinese NBS stories. NBS aims to build a social and economic system that respects nature and green development as an effective means to combat climate change by advocating the concept of ecological civilization in which humans and nature coexist in harmony. NBS is more conducive to widespread human participation and efficient progress, and is expected to contribute more than 30% to carbon neutrality. It is a promising solution to climate change. NBS was listed as one of the nine major areas of the United Nations' response to climate change in 2019. As a global NBS leader, China has contributed a lot of practical cases to improve the global climate governance system.
We will steadfastly fulfill our commitment to reduce emissions and set an example for global climate governance with the example of major countries. China maintains that all countries in the world earnestly fulfill their obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement and submit their voluntary contributions as scheduled. In order to fulfill its commitments, in recent years, China has formulated and vigorously promoted a series of policies and measures conducive to climate change mitigation, and achieved fruitful results. In terms of strategic planning, the National Climate Change Plan (2014-2020) has been compiled, and climate change goals have been incorporated into mid- and long-term plans for economic and social development. Compared with the climate action targets proposed by China, China ’s carbon intensity in 2018 decreased by about 45.8% compared with 2005, and the goal of reducing carbon intensity by 40% to 45% in 2020 has been completed ahead of schedule; non-fossil energy has accounted for the total primary energy consumption It reached 14.3%, and it is estimated that after two years of efforts, the target of 15% by 2020 can be achieved. At the same time, China's current renewable energy investment and cumulative reduction of carbon emissions rank first in the world, laying a solid foundation for achieving the "13th Five-Year Plan" carbon intensity binding target and implementing the 2030 national independent contribution target. In addition, China has launched a national carbon emissions trading market at the end of 2017, taking the power generation industry as a breakthrough and taking the lead in implementing carbon emissions trading, which has already achieved initial results; China has also selected 87 regions with different levels of development Low-carbon provinces and cities, 51 low-carbon industrial parks, 8 low-carbon cities (towns) pilots, many pilot regions have put forward carbon emissions peak targets and roadmaps; China ’s “Environmental Protection Tax Law” was issued in January 2018 Effective on 1st; the "City Adaptation Action Plan" was issued in 2016, and 28 cities have launched climate-adapted urban pilots, and Chinese cities have continuously improved their ability to adapt to climate change; China has adopted the concept of a community of shared future for mankind. The “Belt and Road” will certainly bring more power to global cooperation for climate governance.
Leveraging China's Advantages and Proactively Addressing Climate Challenges
In the future, China will continue to implement China's global climate governance plan and still face a series of challenges. In terms of natural environment, China's climate conditions are complex, its ecological environment is fragile, and its stability is low. The adverse effects of climate change on food production, water resources, and the ecological environment are more significant. From the above aspects, China's climate change vulnerability index is relatively high. The risks are great; in terms of social environment, China has a large population and uneven economic development levels in different regions and industries. At this stage, many needs, such as economic development, improvement of people's livelihood, and poverty reduction and poverty reduction, are superimposed with the need for substantial emission reductions. In the field of low-carbon technology, the negative attitudes of developed countries in sharing low-carbon technologies and the high cost of low-carbon technology development and operation have led to insufficient technological resources in China. In terms of the international environment, the increasingly complex international The situation and the trend of countering globalization have caused a certain degree of impact on the concept of win-win global governance, an inclusive and open global climate governance system, and the active funding, technical cooperation, and exchanges between countries.
Facing the complex domestic and international environment, China can still exert its unique advantages in meeting climate challenges in the field of climate governance.
China has significant institutional advantages. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics has given China a strong ability to gather consensus and respond to crises under the leadership of the Communist Party. The Chinese Communist Party has successfully adopted climate change as a major strategy for economic and social development and a major opportunity to accelerate the transformation of economic development methods and promote high-quality development through its extensive public base and efficient organizational mobilization capabilities. It will respond to climate change and economic development. Unify; integrate energy conservation and emission reduction with industrial structure adjustment, optimization of energy structure, and improvement of energy efficiency; unify short-term and long-term interests of the country. It is these remarkable advantages that have become the basis for the stability and continuity of China's global climate governance plan, and the guarantee for China's international commitment to address climate change. It is also these advantages that enable China to implement challenges without fear of challenges. The global climate governance program has achieved fruitful results and a good international reputation.
China has gradually gained certain advantages in climate discourse. With a series of successful climate diplomacy, green initiatives and tangible green actions, China has gained more and more international recognition for itself and improved its voice in global climate governance. Since the Paris Agreement, China ’s outstanding contribution to international climate negotiations has increased China ’s influence in the construction of global climate governance mechanisms. At the same time, China has advocated the concept of green development in many multilateral diplomatic occasions, and proposed “green finance”, The green “Belt and Road” initiative, and in April 2019, the “Belt and Road” Green Development International Alliance was established in Beijing to promote ecological protection and climate change in countries along the “Belt and Road”. China has won the right to speak with sincerity, wisdom, and ability in climate governance actions, which has helped it meet the climate governance challenges.
China's pragmatic role and active actions have provided a strong commentary on its global climate governance program, and also made a significant contribution to addressing global climate change and the sustainable development of all mankind. As the understanding of climate change becomes more rational and in-depth, China will continue to uphold the development concept of building a community of shared future for mankind, strive to implement the road of green, low-carbon and sustainable development, and continue to make progress in the journey of global climate governance New pace.
(Source: Study Times Author: Zhou Shao snow Editor: Luan Philippines)