Reported by Zhao Xiaoni of China Meteorological News Recently, the scientific research project of the public welfare industry (meteorology) undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences-"Technology for Monitoring, Early Warning and Evaluation of Weather Conditions of Crop Diseases and Insect Pests" has passed inspection in Beijing. This project aims at the business development and production prevention and control of major crop pests and diseases (rice planthopper, wheat powdery mildew) in China, and establishes a climate background indicator and meteorological grade indicator system for the occurrence of pests and diseases, as well as the monitoring of meteorological grades for the occurrence of pests and diseases. Early warning, forecasting and impact assessment technology system.
According to Huo Zhiguo, the person in charge of the project and a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, the project is based on diverse information such as crops, pests, and meteorological conditions involved in the occurrence of diseases and insect pests such as agricultural conditions, disasters, ground meteorology, atmospheric circulation, and sea temperature. Based on field observation experiments and field surveys, the key factors and time periods that influence the meteorological grades of pest and disease occurrence at different time and space scales are selected based on the weather and climate conditions that trigger the occurrence of pests and diseases. 2. Technical methods, indicators and models of impact assessment.
This project first proposed the concept of "day limit temperature cumulative time", which characterizes the relationship between the epidemic rate of wheat powdery mildew and daily temperature fluctuations, and created a field canopy and atmospheric quantification model based on "day limit temperature cumulative time". Dynamic discrimination of wheat powdery mildew epidemic rate.
In the context of climate change, the project also found that changes in meteorological factors such as temperature, precipitation, and sunlight caused by climate change are generally beneficial to the occurrence of rice planthoppers and wheat powdery mildew across the country, resulting in aggravation of the damage; it also revealed that the ENSO event caused the occurrence of brown planthoppers and The impact of winter temperature changes on the northern boundary of the brown planthopper winter, and the El Niño event was found to be an important indicator of the climate background for the years when the brown planthopper was severely affected. For example, the northern boundary of the brown planthopper overwintering is an average temperature of not less than 10 ° C in January.
Relying on this project, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and other three provinces have established provincial business platform systems for major meteorological and pest weather services. The results have also been commercialized in five provincial agricultural meteorological services in Guangdong, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. Application, and has formed business service and production prevention and control application capabilities. Applying the results of this project to guide prevention and control, the damage loss of rice planthopper was reduced by an average of 3.8 kg / mu, the damage loss of wheat powdery mildew was reduced by 1% to 5%, the amount of pesticide application was reduced by 10.3%, and the yield loss in the demonstration area was reduced by 5% to 30%. The cumulative reduction in disaster-related losses was more than 141.76 million yuan, and significant economic, social, and ecological benefits were achieved.
(Source: "China Meteorological News" December 18th edition responsible editor: Shen Minxia)