China Meteorological News reporter Li Yipeng Yang Qunna Correspondent Lin Zejin
The Minjiang River is colorful, and the lotus is in full bloom. The thriving Macau is like a pearl inlaid on the shores of the South China Sea.
From the large-scale view of the weather, this small and delicate pearl also has a natural "weakness"-it is composed of the Macau Peninsula, Taipa, and Coloane. It has a land area of just over 30 square kilometers. For the upstream and downstream weather system With unpredictable and catastrophic weather, the "field of view" is limited.
The atmosphere is boundless, and brotherhood is deep. From co-constructing a catastrophic weather monitoring network, to carrying out scientific research business cooperation, to confederations to discuss catastrophic weather such as typhoons and cold waves, the Mainland and Macao meteorological departments work closely together to watch the sky for the people. Closer observation from a front-line perspective can better feel the warmth of family.
Zhuhai, the forefront of Guangdong-Macao cooperation. The Zhuhai Hengqin Free Trade Zone, undertaking the mission of exploring a new model of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao cooperation under the "one country, two systems", is now full of vigor-1900 Macao enterprises have settled in with a total investment of USD 85.5 billion. 219.
Here, there are also the most advanced Zhuhai-Macao meteorological co-construction results: phased array radar built on Hengqin Naobeishan, and three phased array radars built on Qi'ao Island Wangchiling, Gaolan Port Ma'anshan and Doumen Huangyang Mountain. Array-controlled radar networking has achieved full coverage of low-level and small-scale catastrophic weather monitoring in the Pearl and Australia region. At present, Guangdong has a total of 9 phased array radars, 4 of which are located in Zhuhai.
The meteorological cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has gradually deepened since the 1980s. Through the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Meteorological Technology Conference and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Meteorological Business Conference, mechanisms such as regular meetings, technical and personnel exchanges have been gradually established. Early Guangdong-Macao meteorological cooperation was mainly in information exchange, co-construction of detection networks, and communication networks. Since 1996, the meteorological departments in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau have maintained long-term developments in numerical forecasting technology, meteorological observation and radiation monitoring, information networks and data exchange, meteorological services and early warning and forecasting technology development, climate and climate change, scientific research and personnel exchanges. Cooperation, holding joint meetings every year to check the implementation of the previous year's cooperation plan and discuss the next year's cooperation plan. Time flies, times change, and the scope of cooperation is getting wider and wider.
As close neighbors, Zhuhai and Macau are in the same blue sky, affected by the common weather system.
"In addition to typhoons, the most serious threats to the safety of Zhuhai and Macau cities are thunderstorms and strong convection weather." Zhan Tang, chief forecaster of Zhuhai Meteorological Observatory, said that such weather scales are small, change fast, and last for a short time. Radar observation, but traditional radar is limited by observation altitude, scanning frequency and ground curvature, etc. It has limited ability to observe sudden weather at low levels, and there are also blind spots. Phased array radar specializing in "low-level" and "close range" just makes up for this short board.
"On October 23, 2018, light rain occurred around the port, which is likely to affect the opening ceremony of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge at 9 o'clock. Because weak precipitation mainly occurs below 1 km above the ground, S-band Doppler radar is difficult to detect. The corresponding echo of light rain. "Zhan Tang recalled. At that time, the Hengqin station and Qi'ao station in the phased array radar network were completed and put into trial operation. By scanning with high spatiotemporal resolution, forecasters judge that the rain will gradually move inland in the future, away from the site of the opening ceremony of the bridge.
"The weather radars that have been introduced have improved the meteorological detection capabilities on the west bank of the Pearl River, and in particular have greater guarantees for system monitoring of rapid development and changes such as thunderstorms and heavy rains." Macau Geophysical and Meteorological Bureau experts said.
Coordinates: Golden Bay
Prior to the construction of phased array radar, the contribution to disaster prevention and mitigation in Zhuhai and Macao was contributed by the two parties ’S-band Doppler dual-polarization weather radar and the Pearl River Estuary Meteorological Detection Network, which were jointly constructed at the Jinwan Airport.
When there is no radar in Zhuhai and Macao, the judgment of short-term strong convection weather can only rely on Guangzhou radar 100 kilometers away, which greatly reduces the accuracy.
Based on this, Macau has proposed a radar construction concept. However, due to the technical reasons of the radar itself—the radiation spiral rises directly above it and it is just a blind spot for observation, it cannot be monitored on its own. Therefore, Zhuhai and Macau cooperated to build the radar near Jinwan Airport. Its construction and operation made up for the gap in radar weather observation systems over the coast of Guangdong from Shenzhen to Yangjiang over 300 kilometers, and increased the observation range of typhoons on the west bank of the Pearl River Estuary by 100 kilometers.
According to the needs of maritime disaster defense, both parties have made technological innovations and choices.
The elevation angle of radars in use in China is generally 0.5 degrees, and the Zhuhai-Australia radar is adapted to local conditions and has a unique ultra-low elevation angle of 0.1 degrees. This design has advantages and disadvantages. The impact of mountain blockage and clutter is relatively large, but when the typhoon approaches, you can observe the structure and wind speed distribution of the typhoon closer to the lower level.
During the typhoon "mangosteen" in 2018, the meteorological departments of Zhuhai and Macao used the low-level observation capabilities of the Zhuhai-Australian radar to make more detailed stereoscopic observations of the typhoon structure. From the actual business situation, the positioning capabilities and positioning accuracy of the ultra-low elevation mode Significantly higher than the conventional 0.5 degree elevation scan.
In order to obtain the typhoon situation in time, the two sides also built marine meteorological automated unattended comprehensive observation stations on 5 islands including Dong'ao Island, Miaowan Island and Wailingding Island to form the Pearl River Estuary Meteorological Observation Network and expand the marine monitoring defense line 60 Kilometers, monitoring and early warning time 2 hours in advance. These data not only provide key information for disaster prevention and mitigation in Zhuhai and Macao, but also provide support for the province and even the national defense against typhoons.
Coordinates: Central Weather Station
"Beijing, we are ready!" At 9:59 on September 13, 2018, on the eve of the typhoon "Mangosteen" landing, a video conference spanning more than 2,000 kilometers once again brought the meteorological department between the Central Meteorological Observatory and the Hong Kong and Macao Meteorological Department closer. distance.
The defense against catastrophic weather has both side-by-side battles with "front" comrades-in-arms and the full support of "rear".
Typhoon Mangosteen was the strongest typhoon that landed in China that year. In view of its influence and disaster-causing nature, the three places' meteorological departments held weather consultations to gather insights into the typhoon path and the impact of wind and rain.
Subsequently, such confederations gradually became normalized. During the period when cold air affected southern China in December 2018, and cold air and typhoon "Northern Crown" affected Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao in December 2019, the Central Meteorological Observatory, Guangdong Meteorological Observatory, and the Hong Kong and Macao Meteorological Department discussed the forecast and preventive measures through the weather conference.
Such a consultation mechanism has been highly recognized by the Hong Kong and Macao media, such as the Ta Kung Pao, Sing Tao Daily, and "under the" one country, two systems ", the Hong Kong and Macao region has consulted with the mainland authorities on emergency matters and it has become a family matter. "The storm knows no boundaries. Like sea and air pollution and infectious diseases, the three places need to work closely to establish a constant joint defense mechanism to jointly cope with disasters."
In recent years, the interaction between the Central Meteorological Observatory and the Hong Kong and Macao Meteorological Department has become closer. The Central Meteorological Observatory stated that the federation's consultation mechanism has entered a normal state and is of great significance in doing a good job in regional disaster prevention and mitigation and serving the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.
Today, Macau can also watch the national and provincial weather consultations on a daily basis through the Guangdong-Macao special line. At the same time, with the implementation of the "Meteorological Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement" between Guangdong Province and Macau, Guangdong and Macao are upgrading regional numerical weather forecasting technology, enhancing marine severe weather and strong convective weather forecasting and early warning technology, and digital (grid) weather forecasting technology. Cooperation in areas such as weather forecasting and early warning technology optimization, optimization of the Pearl River Delta and integrated marine and atmospheric detection networks, and cities' response to extreme weather events has also been advanced.
Meteorological experts in Macao said that these cooperations have effectively promoted the development of meteorological causes on both sides.
Coordinates: Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge connects the new development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Meteorological cooperation has also deepened along with the construction and development of the Greater Bay Area.
The operation of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge built in Lingdingyang is mainly affected by wind and sea fog. At present, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (Zhuhai section) is equipped with eight meteorological observation points, and the bridge's three-dimensional fine observation network is continuously improved with the efforts of the three local meteorological departments. The three places have established a platform for sharing meteorological observation data of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, and established mechanisms for severe weather information notification and consultation. By exchanging and sharing meteorological data, Zhuhai and Macao provide technical support in weather forecast and early warning for the takeoff and landing of Zhuhai and Macau airports and airport operation safety, as well as guarantee the safe operation of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge in China Unicom.
In order to better serve the public traveling between the two places, the Zhuhai and Macau Meteorological Department through the weather website, 12121 emergency weather phone (Zhuhai), 1311 weather query voice system (Macau), 24-hour display of weather information at entry and exit gates, WeChat public account (Zhuhai Weather, Macao Meteorological Bureau SMG) and other channels issued typhoons, rainstorm warning signals and daily weather information, etc., realizing the two-way opening of weather data in real time, so that citizens of the two places and passengers at ports can grasp the latest weather forecast warning information in a timely manner and Arrange a reasonable schedule. Based on the provision of 4 weather information displays at Gongbei Port, Hengqin Port, Zhuhai-Australia Cross-border Industrial Zone and other places, 4 new weather information displays have recently been put into use at Hengqin Port.
A little lotus with his back against his great chest. Facing the future, with the preparation and implementation of the meteorological plan for the Greater Bay Area, the meteorological cooperation between Macao and the Mainland will rely on a larger platform to achieve higher requirements for precise weather monitoring, accurate forecasting and fine service, and effectively respond to climate change and extreme weather. Challenges to add glory to a better tomorrow.
(Responsible editor: Luan Fei)